# Diving into the Basics of Trigonometry ## What is Trigonometry?

It is a branch of mathematics that helps you understand the relationships between the sides and angles of a triangle. Think of a triangle as a shape with three sides and three angles. In trigonometry, there are special functions such as sine, cosine, and tangent to describe these relationships. For example, you can use ‘sine’ to find out the height of a triangle if you know the length of one side and one angle.

Trigonometry uses the idea of right triangles to understand the relationships between the sides and angles in triangles. A right triangle is a triangle with one angle that is exactly 90 degrees, also known as a right angle.

## Who is the Father of Trigonometry?

The Father of Trigonometry is considered to be the Greek mathematician Hipparchus, who lived around 190–120 BCE. Hipparchus was a prolific astronomer and mathematician who made important contributions to both fields. In mathematics, Hipparchus is credited with creating the field of trigonometry by developing the basic concepts and techniques that you still use today. He introduced the idea of measuring angles and defined the six trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent) based on the relationships between the sides and angles of triangles.

Hipparchus’ work laid the foundation for the further development of trigonometry by later mathematicians and astronomers, including the Indian mathematician Aryabhata, the Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, and the Greek mathematician Ptolemy, among others. Today, trigonometry is a widely used and essential tool in many branches of mathematics and science, and Hipparchus’ legacy continues to influence the study of geometry, astronomy, and many other fields. ## How Does it Work?

Trigonometry works by using the relationships between the sides and angles of triangles to find unknown values. It uses a system of functions, such as sine, cosine, and tangent, to describe these relationships. For example, consider the following –

• Label one angle in the right triangle as “θ” and call it the “reference angle”
• Label the side of the triangle opposite to the reference angle as “opposite”
• Label the side of the triangle adjacent to the reference angle as “adjacent
• Label the longest side of the triangle as “hypotenuse”

With these labels, you can use the following functions to find the relationships between the sides and angles in the triangle:

• Sine (sin) – The sine of an angle is equal to the ratio of the length of the opposite side to the length of the hypotenuse. In other words, sin(θ) = opposite/hypotenuse
• Cosine (cos) – The cosine of an angle is equal to the ratio of the length of the adjacent side to the length of the hypotenuse. In other words, cos(θ) = adjacent/hypotenuse
• Tangent (tan) – The tangent of an angle is equal to the ratio of the length of the opposite side to the length of the adjacent side. In other words, tan(θ) = opposite/adjacent

These functions are used to solve real-life problems. For example, if you know the height of a building and the distance from the building to a point on the ground, you can use trigonometry to find the height of the building.

Trigonometry is a useful and important subject that helps us understand and solve real-world problems. So, next time you see a tall building or want to find the distance between two places, think of trigonometry as your helper.

## Application of Trigonometry in our Daily Lives

You might have not realised, but trigonometry is applied in many areas of our daily lives. Let’s look

• Navigation – It is used in navigation to find the distance between two points and to determine the location of ships, aeroplanes, and other objects
• Surveying – It is used in surveying to determine the height of buildings, the slope of the land, and other important measurements
• Architecture – It is used in architecture to calculate the height and slope of roofs, and to design arches and other curved structures. It is also used in determining the placement of windows and doors in buildings
• Computer graphics – It is used in computer graphics to create images, animations, to control the movement of objects on a screen, to perform 3D rotations and transformations
• Physics and engineering – Trigonometry is used in physics and engineering to solve problems involving angles, distances, and directions. For example, it is used in the calculation of projectile motion, wave propagation, and the design of mechanical systems
• Economics and finance – It is used in economics and finance to model and analyse financial markets and to calculate the yield and duration of bonds
• Environmental science – It is used in environmental science to study the patterns of tides and ocean currents, to determine the height of trees and the slope of the land. It is also used in measuring the size of wildlife populations

These are just a few examples of the many ways that trigonometry is used in our daily lives.

## What do Kids Learn in Trigonometry Courses?

The trigonometry course covers the following topics –

• Angle measurement – Kids learn how to measure angles using degrees or radians and how to convert between different units of measurement.
• Trigonometric functions – They learn about the six basic trigonometric functions – sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent) and how they relate to the sides and angles of triangles.
• Right triangles – Kids learn how to use trigonometry to solve problems involving right triangles, such as finding missing sides or angles.
• Graphs of trigonometric functions – Students learn how to graph trigonometric functions, including sine and cosine waves. They learn how to use graphs to understand and interpret the properties of the functions.
• Inverse trigonometric functions – They learn about inverse trigonometric functions and how to use them to find angles given the values of the trigonometric functions.
• Trigonometric identities – They learn about various trigonometric identities, such as the Pythagorean identity, and how to use them to simplify expressions and solve problems.
• Applications – Students learn how to use trigonometry to solve real-world problems in areas such as navigation, surveying, physics, and engineering.

In addition, the course also includes activities and hands-on projects that help students apply them to real-world situations. The goal is to develop a deep understanding of trigonometry and to prepare students for further study in mathematics and related fields.

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